Throughout the 20th century, South Africa had the largest economy and military on the African continent. Its strategic geographic position and mineral wealth in gold and uranium made it an important ally for the largest economies in the world. The Cold War enhanced its significance. However, in the second half of the twentieth century, its policies of apartheid rendered it an international pariah. This course examines the ways in which countries, international institutions, and millions of 'ordinary' people shaped the course of South African history. How did South Africa interact with the broader world, and how did the world try to affect South Africa's policies of white supremacy?